Transport around 1,000 AD

The Globe




Southwest Asia




Indus Valley





Ironically, horses were what enabled Turkish tribes from central Asia in the eleventh century AD to invade the land of the first written Indo-European language, Hittite. The most important innovation of the first Indo-Europeans was thus turned against their descendants. Turks are largely European in their genes, but non-Indo-European (Turkish) in their language. Similarly, an invasion from the east in 896 AD left modern Hungary largely European in its genes but Finno-Ugric in its language. By illustrating how a small invading force of steppe horsemen could impose their language on a European society, Turkey and Hungary provide models of how the rest of Europe came to speak Indo-European. (The Third Chimpanzee)

South America




North America

The horse-mounted nomadic hunters who range through thousands of Hollywood epics have some basis in reality, but only after the Europeans reintroduced the horse in America. (Patterns in Prehistory)