Envolution around 50,000 BC

The Globe

The multiple ways in which Homo spaiens diverged physically and behaviorally from pre-sapiens forms of Homo in the period between about 300,000 years ago to 30,000 years ago are collectively referred to as the "Middle/Upper Paleolithic transition." This "transition" is visible in many radical changes, such as (1) an increase of average human brain size from about 1,000 to about 1,400 cubic centimeters; (2) changes in physical form such that modern Homo sapiens sapiens have less robust skeletons, a more prominent chin, smaller or absent brow ridges, smaller teeth, a higher rounded skull, and other physical characteristics; (3) increased human population numbers and densities. (Patterns in Prehistory)

When modern humans first started to leave Africa, about 50,000 years ago by present reckoning, they probably consisted of small groups of hunter-gatherers a few hundred strong. Although their lineage trees are based on genetic differences, most of these differences lie in the regions of DNA that do not code for genes and have no effect on the body "We are all Africans at the Y chromosome level and we are really all brothers," Dr. Underhill said. Whether or not genetic prehistory is suitable material for a modern origin myth, it is about to be made available to a wider public. (109)

Last month a company called Oxford Ancestors set up business with the offer to tell customers which of the seven daughters of Eve they are descended from. (Almost all Europeans belong to only seven of the nine mitochondrial lineages found in Europe). The test (see www.oxfordancestors.com) requires sending in a sample of cells brushed from the inside of the cheek. For a mere $180, anyone of European ancestry can establish the start of a genealogy far senior to Charlemagne's. He is now working on tests to identify other lineages around the world, including 14 in Africa, and 16 in Eurasia and the Americas. "I don't think this stuff should be confined to academics," he said. (109)

Klein suggests that what amounts to a rewiring of the human brain occurred sometime between 40,000 and 50,000 years ago, allowing for a great leap to modern intelligence. (The Past in Perspective)

Recent scientific detective work has revealed rather precisely when the progenitors of the N and M lineages, and thus the direct ancestors of all non-African people alive in the world today, began their epic migration: Dating the most recent common ancestor of each of the modern non-African mtDNA clades reveals their single, late, and rapid dispersal less than 55,000 years ago. (Magicians of the Gods)

10,000 – 50,000 years ago A significant number of Asians returned to Africa. The reasons for this are unknown, but we’ve tracked their movements through their DNA. (Humans are Not from Earth)   

40,000 – 50,000 years ago The first evidence of modern human behavior and cognition: abstract thinking, deep planning, art, ornamentation, music, and blade technology. (Humans are Not from Earth)   

43,000 – 45,000 years ago European early modern humans (the Cro-Magnons) appeared. They were genetically identical to modern humans, but were physically more robust with slightly larger craniums. They are thought to have split off from the Asian group. They appear to be the first group of modern humans to develop blue eyes. (Humans are Not from Earth)  

Africa

About all scholars agree on is that: (1) there were humans living in Europe and western Asia by 500,000 years ago but they were not Homo sapiens spaiens; (2) a distinctive form of human, the "Neanerthals," who were different from us in important anatomical ways, lived in Europe, western Asia, and perhaps North Africa between about 100,000 and 40,000 years ago; and (3) by 30,000 years ago all the Neanderthals and other distinctive physical forms of humans, except ourselves, Homo sapiens sapiens, hade disappeared.

When modern humans first started to leave Africa, about 50,000 years ago by present reckoning, they probably consisted of small groups of hunter-gatherers a few hundred strong. 

Between their appearance in Africa more than 100,000 years ago until about 50,000 years ago, or even a bit later, the archaeological record does not evidence a quantum leap to modern-looking cultural behavior. Although these ancient, moodern-looking people may have looked just like us, their artifacts do not reflect that they thought like us. Only after 50,000 years ago, in the period called the Upper Paleolithic in Europe and Asia and the Late Stone Age in Africa, do we see what appears in the archaeological record to be an intellectual leap forward.  (The Past in Perspective)

Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have found that the majority of Y chromosomes in African people seem to have come from Asia. They suggest that after the initial migrations out of Africa there must have been a significant reverse migration back to Africa between 10,000 and 50,000 years ago. (Humans are Not from Earth)  

Southwest Asia

About all scholars agree on is that: (1) there were humans living in Europe and western Asia by 500,000 years ago but they were not Homo sapiens spaiens; (2) a distinctive form of human, the "Neanerthals," who were different from us in important anatomical ways, lived in Europe, western Asia, and perhaps North Africa between about 100,000 and 40,000 years ago; and (3) by 30,000 years ago all the Neanderthals and other distinctive physical forms of humans, except ourselves, Homo sapiens sapiens, hade disappeared.

…geneticists, by tracing the DNA patterns found in people throughout the world, have now identified lineages descended from 10 sons of a genetic Adam and 18 daughters of Eve. This ancestral human population lived somewhere in Africa, geneticists believe, and started to split up some time after 144,000 years ago, give or take 10,000 years, the inferred time at which both the mitochondrial and Y chromosome trees make their first branches. The tree is rooted in a single Y chromosomal Adam, and has 10 principal branches, Dr. Cavalli-Sforza reports. Of these sons of Adam, the first three (designated I, II and III) are found almost exclusively in Africa. Son III's lineage migrated to Asia and begat sons IV-X, who spread through the rest of the world--to the Sea of Japan (son IV), northern India (son V) and the South Caspian (sons VI and IX). (109)

Shanidar Cave in the Kurdish mountains of what is now northern Iraq: occupied by Neanderthal man c.50,000 years ago to 46,000 years ago; occupied by anatomically modern Upper Palaeolithic humans around 34,000 years ago; occupied by Mesolithic peoples around 11,000 years ago. (Underworld)

...the hill lands of Syria, Lebanon, and Israel, are replete with caves where the evidence of prehistoric but modern Man has been preserved. One of these caves, Shanidar, is located in the north-eastern part of the semiarc of civilization. As layer upon layer of debris was removed, it became apparent that the cave preserved a clear record of Man's habitation in the area from about 100,000 to some 13,000 years ago. (The 12th Planet)

Egypt

 

Indus Valley

 …geneticists, by tracing the DNA patterns found in people throughout the world, have now identified lineages descended from 10 sons of a genetic Adam and 18 daughters of Eve. This ancestral human population lived somewhere in Africa, geneticists believe, and started to split up some time after 144,000 years ago, give or take 10,000 years, the inferred time at which both the mitochondrial and Y chromosome trees make their first branches. The tree is rooted in a single Y chromosomal Adam, and has 10 principal branches, Dr. Cavalli-Sforza reports. Of these sons of Adam, the first three (designated I, II and III) are found almost exclusively in Africa. Son III's lineage migrated to Asia and begat sons IV-X, who spread through the rest of the world--to the Sea of Japan (son IV), northern India (son V) and the South Caspian (sons VI and IX). (109)

China

 …geneticists, by tracing the DNA patterns found in people throughout the world, have now identified lineages descended from 10 sons of a genetic Adam and 18 daughters of Eve. This ancestral human population lived somewhere in Africa, geneticists believe, and started to split up some time after 144,000 years ago, give or take 10,000 years, the inferred time at which both the mitochondrial and Y chromosome trees make their first branches. The tree is rooted in a single Y chromosomal Adam, and has 10 principal branches, Dr. Cavalli-Sforza reports. Of these sons of Adam, the first three (designated I, II and III) are found almost exclusively in Africa. Son III's lineage migrated to Asia and begat sons IV-X, who spread through the rest of the world--to the Sea of Japan (son IV), northern India (son V) and the South Caspian (sons VI and IX). (109)

Europe

About all scholars agree on is that: (1) there were humans living in Europe and western Asia by 500,000 years ago but they were not Homo sapiens spaiens; (2) a distinctive form of human, the "Neanerthals," who were different from us in important anatomical ways, lived in Europe, western Asia, and perhaps North Africa between about 100,000 and 40,000 years ago; and (3) by 30,000 years ago all the Neanderthals and other distinctive physical forms of humans, except ourselves, Homo sapiens sapiens, had disappeared.

…geneticists, by tracing the DNA patterns found in people throughout the world, have now identified lineages descended from 10 sons of a genetic Adam and 18 daughters of Eve. The split between the two main branches in the European tree suggests that modern humans reached Europe 39,000 to 51,000 years ago, Dr. Wallace calculates, a time that corresponds with the archaeological date of at least 35,000 years ago. (109)

...regression studies (using mtDNA) show all modern humans appear to be genetically related possibly as far back as 230,000 years. Africans (the oldest) are considered to have been clearly well established between 130,000 and 80,000 BC. The next oldest seems to be Caucasoid, Middle-Eastern types, dating from about 100,000 years ago. The next oldest are believed to have been Central Asians dating between 73,000 and 56,000 BC. Next, such estimates suggest, came the Europeans between 50,000 and 40,000 BC. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

It is certain,... that Denisova Cave has been used and occupied by various species of human for at least 280,000 years, making it an unrivaled archive—a sort of “hall of records”—of our largely unremembered ancestral story. At certain times during the past 280,000 years, not continuously but at intervals, it had been occupied by Neanderthals. Neanderthals were probably still using the cave 50,000 years ago.  (America Before)

...some teeth, some additional bone fragments, and even some dust from the cave floor allow us to be quite sure that Denisovans were in occupation here at least as early as 170,000 years ago and that they came back 110,000 years ago and again around 50,000 years ago. Just like the Neanderthals who overlapped with our ancestors and interbred with them, so, too, the Denisovans overlapped the Neanderthals and interbred with them while also, again like the Neanderthals, interbreeding with anatomically modern humans. Viable offspring capable of reproduction resulted from all these liaisons and in August 2018, Denisova Cave obliged yet again by yielding up a bone fragment, more than 50,000 years old and in sufficiently good condition for genome sequencing. It turned out to have belonged to a female, about 13 years of age, who had a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father.   (America Before)  

South America

…geneticists, by tracing the DNA patterns found in people throughout the world, have now identified lineages descended from 10 sons of a genetic Adam and 18 daughters of Eve. Of the A through D lineages found in American Indians, A, C and D also occur in Siberian peoples, suggesting that their ancestors were the principal source of the Amerind-speakers' migration. But the B lineage, though it is found elsewhere in Asia, has not turned up in Siberia, a hint that the B people may have taken a sea route to the Americas and then merged there with their A- , C- and D-carrying cousins. (109)

In South America, Pedra Furada in Brazil, Monte Verde in Chile, Taima-taima in Venezuela, and Tibito in Colombia are likewise singled out as convincing pre-Clovis sites of special interest.  (America Before)

...a paper in Nature boldly titled “Carbon-14 Dates Point to Man in the Americas 32,000 Years Ago.” It was a report on her work at a particularly large and richly decorated rock shelter called Pedra Furada where she had excavated “a sequence containing abundant lithic industry and well-structured hearths at all levels” documenting continuous human occupation over the entire period from 6,160 years ago to 32,160 years ago. In addition, she found conclusive evidence that at least one of the spectacular rock paintings was 17,000 years old...in 2003 Guidon and other researchers completed a further study. The results pushed back the date of the human presence at Pedra Furada to 48,500 years ago, and of the paintings themselves, to at least 36,000 years ago. (America Before)

Mesoamerica

…geneticists, by tracing the DNA patterns found in people throughout the world, have now identified lineages descended from 10 sons of a genetic Adam and 18 daughters of Eve. Of the A through D lineages found in American Indians, A, C and D also occur in Siberian peoples, suggesting that their ancestors were the principal source of the Amerind-speakers' migration. But the B lineage, though it is found elsewhere in Asia, has not turned up in Siberia, a hint that the B people may have taken a sea route to the Americas and then merged there with their A- , C- and D-carrying cousins. (109)

North America

…geneticists, by tracing the DNA patterns found in people throughout the world, have now identified lineages descended from 10 sons of a genetic Adam and 18 daughters of Eve. Of the A through D lineages found in American Indians, A, C and D also occur in Siberian peoples, suggesting that their ancestors were the principal source of the Amerind-speakers' migration. But the B lineage, though it is found elsewhere in Asia, has not turned up in Siberia, a hint that the B people may have taken a sea route to the Americas and then merged there with their A- , C- and D-carrying cousins. (109)

Topper is the only Clovis site to be excavated on the coastal plains of Georgia and the Carolinas.  For the next half meter or so there was just sand and small gravels, devoid of any evidence of human presence, and then suddenly the excavators found themselves among artifacts again. ...the date that came back was 50,000—ancient beyond all imagining and right at the limits of radiocarbon. (America Before)

...archaeologists who are open to the notion of greater antiquity (these days the majority apart from a few die-hards) consider the most important pre-Clovis sites in North America in addition to Cerutti and Topper to include: Hueyatlaco, Mexico; Old Crow and Bluefish Caves, Canada; Calico Mountain, California; Pendejo Cave, New Mexico; Tula Springs, Nevada; Meadowcroft Rockshelter, Pennsylvania; Cactus Hill, Virginia; Paisley Five Mile Point Caves, Oregon; Schaefer and Hebior Mammoth site, Wisconsin; Buttermilk Creek, Texas; and Saltville, Virginia.  (America Before)

Other

Between 60,000 and 30,000 years ago, the ancestors of the Australian Aborigines somehow managed to cross at least a few kilometers of open ocean to reach Australia. And while it is possible that an occasional boat of fisherfolk was shipwrecked on the New Guinea-Australia coast, computer simulations that take into account normal fertility rates and the genetic diversity of modern populations suggest that more than just a boatload or two of colonists founded that area's present aboriginal population. Two distinct groups of ancient people have been found there, which scholars believe indicate colonization by two different groups, one more robust type, 50,000 years ago, the other a more gracile people, before 20,000 years ago.(Patterns in Prehistory)